Friday, March 6, 2020

The Elizabethan Times essays

The Elizabethan Times essays Even though the past is the past there are multiple eras that changed things around the same period. The Elizabethan Era began in 1558 and lasted until 1603 well after Britains most honorable queen passed away. During this time period every aspect of life was considerably complex and in our eyes abnormal, such thing would consist of everything from currency to lifestyles and as every one knows religion. While the Britain was going through all of these dramatic changes the most influential poet/play writer was born, William Shakespeare. Shakespeare contributed to in the evolution and growth of England like your couldnt imagine. In his 40 some years of literary creativity, Shakespeare was solely responsible for the creation of numerous life-altering plays such as Romeo most importantly because of Shakespeares involvement in play writing, Theatre flourished during the Elizabethan Era. A change theatres as well as culture were dramatic occurrences in the Queens era and thanks to the anc ient Britishs mind boggling customs we are what we are today. Queen Elizabeth I inherited the throne in 1558 at a youthful age of twenty-five. With her reign the English Renaissance lasted from the day she took the throne to 1603 (The Elizabethan ERA, 2000-2003). During her fearless reign things such as literature, theater, and every form of the arts flourished. Probably most known to the educational world, the famous play writer William Shakespeare was born and expressed his love for literature. The Elizabethan Era was a period in time, which shaped and bolded the views and aspects of our present day lives. Even though during the Elizabethan Era a monarch such as Queen Elizabeth I reigned civilization began to become just a little more civilized. Religion was a thing that every one had in the Elizabethan Era. We were all brought up to be Christians of one sort or another (Secara, 2002). The...

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

AT&T Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

AT&T - Essay Example The core assumption behind this movement of net income is the increasing expected costs and expenses of the company of the forth-coming periods. A little variation is the assets of the company is forecasted and the levels of assets are not expected to increase or decrease significantly. The company plans to reduce the levels of its equity in the future periods with minor deductions. AT&T tries to improve the paid dividends by increasing the value slightly every year, these movements show that the organization is planning and persuading an organic growth for the future periods. The cash flow generation is likely to drop down every year due to increased expected expenses. Due to increased expenses, the profit margins of the company will be affected and expected to fall in the future periods. The retention ratio also signifies the affect of gradual declinations of retained profits over the years and is dropping down following the same trend of Earnings of the company. The asset turnover is expected to increase due to increasing sale and reducing assets, the ratio is expected to improve continuously every year. The financial gearings of the company are assumed to remain stable with little variation that will make the company more predictable to the investors by consistency in the in the operational and financial sustainability of the organization. (Helfert,

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

RIVERS AND ETHINIC'S 3WA Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

RIVERS AND ETHINIC'S 3WA - Article Example The above is evident in situation that life was saved and afterwards, the same patients wonder why that is pertinent to him or her (Burkhardt, 2008.p.12). Having put that across, it is pertinent for every nurse to realize the important of his or her decision to the patients. The responsibility of the nurses is that they are expected to be altruistic. The above means that nursing professionals should have ethical obligation by serving others without considering self-interest. According to experts, they affirm that an altruistic nurse will only make decision that interests the patients. It follows that, being an advocate to the patient, it is important for the nurses to practice excellent nursing ethnics. Now days, with the improvised and modern technology, nurses can keep individuals alive indefinitely, argues Colleen Moore. Despite of the ability to keep a patient alive indefinitely, to some extent the same may not be a good idea to the patients themselves. Some of the difficult ques tions that the medics ask themselves is that, despite of exposing patients on a life supporting machine, pump nutrients in them and hook them up in several tubes, is that a patients ‘ best option?. ... As nursing, it is necessary that the above decision be respected even if there is a chance of saving the life. Further, another challenge is that some patients may refuse to receive chemotherapy and it is important to respect that decision (Aiken, 1994. p.24). The book acknowledges the fact that sometimes family can make decisions due to lack of understanding or grief. Here, if the above dilemma arises that is when a strong committee of ethnics can be invaluable service. The article further outlines that committee on ethnics can primarily make decisions that best suits the patient despite of the different cultural beliefs of the patients, the expected outcomes and the wishes of the patients (Hunt, 1996.p. 14). It is surprising to note that to some extent the ethical committee can take off the large burden that the family as well, as patient is going through. With the above in minds, it is important to note that nurse practice act and code of ethnics are vital guidelines governing the behaviors of the nurses though the documents are not specific. Here, the document has limitations to extent that one cannot know wrong or right and so, the above is a decision left for the nurses to decide for themselves. In general, it is important to know that ethnics is something that encompasses the interpretation of the individuals, since it is based on the individual values and morals. Therefore, the article concludes that despite of the availability of NPA and Code, it is pertinent for the nurses to follow their own decision basing on the interest of the patients. Another pertinent article is the nursing ethical dilemmas. Here, Cathy Fant insinuates that nurses usually face

Monday, January 27, 2020

Management of Shoulder Dystocia: A Reflective Essay

Management of Shoulder Dystocia: A Reflective Essay Title: A reflective essay on how you would manage a shoulder dystocia as an obstetric emergency in a stand alone midwife led unit.   Undergraduate Degree Level Essay 1,000 Words Essay The condition of shoulder dystocia is diagnosed when the delivery of the foetal head is prevented by the impaction of one of the foetal shoulders within the mother’s pelvis. Simple head traction or episiotomy alone will not resolve the condition Shoulder dystocia is a complication of labour which is notoriously difficult to manage. It has a high complication rate and an increased rate of mortality. A number of studies have highlighted the fact that management is not always optimal. (Crofts, et al. 2006). Two UK studies produced similar findings that avoidable factors were identifiable in 66% of the perinatal deaths associated with shoulder dystocia. The definition of â€Å"avoidable factors† being a different management would have produced a better outcome. This malpresentation occurs in about 2% of vaginal deliveries and common associated morbidities include permanent brachial plexus injury, fracture of the clavicle, foetal haematoma and hypoxic brain injury. (Draycott, et al. 2008). Because the majority of cases of shoulder dystocia occur in the absence of predictable risk factors, all healthcare professionals in charge of a delivery should have an optimal plan to resolve shoulder dystocia in the safest way possible in any given circumstance. Management The management of shoulder dystocia is a subject that has acquired a large literature in its own right. It is therefore not appropriate to discuss it in great detail. Many of the studies done on the subject have identified a number of â€Å"critical tasks† in the delivery process. These include recognizing shoulder dystocia, asking for additional help, calling for paediatricians to be attend the delivery, applying gentle downward traction on the fetal head, placing the patient in McRoberts position, and applying appropriate suprapubic pressure. (Deering, et al. 2005) A number of mechanisms have been advised in the literature and these include rotational manoeuvre (Rubins or Woodscrew), episiotomy, delivery of the posterior arm, fracture of clavicle, symphysiotomy, all-fours manoeuvre, a cephalic replacement (Zavenelli) manoeuvre if other manoeuvres were not successful. (Crofts et al. 2008) Predisposing factors. Shoulder dystocia appears to occur in cases where there are no discernable predisposing factors however, there are some conditions that appear to make it more likely. The strongest single predictor appears to be foetal macrosomia. A number of authorities have suggested that maternal obesity is an association of the condition, but the meticulous study by Robinson showed conclusively that it was only obesity in diabetic mothers (that was associated with macrosomia) that had a high incidence of shoulder dystocia. Other causes of obesity did not have this association. (Robinson, et al. 2003) Gonen was able to report that a critical weight appeared to be 4,500 g with 33% of infants over this weight having shoulder dystocia and only 2% who were under it. (Gonen, et al. 1996) Birth position There appears to be considerable controversy regarding the ideal birth position. The McRoberts position (with maternal hips in flexion), combined with suprapubic pressure, has been reported as resolving 50% of identified cases of shoulder dystocia (German, et al. 1997). It is thought to achieve its effect through a rotation of the symphysis pubis and flattening of the sacrum. This, together with fundal pressure, is believed to reduce the possibility of the anterior shoulder being impacted under the symphysis pubis. There are some reports of the possibility of increased maternal morbidity (Heath, et al. 1999) and lack of effect (Beall, et al. 2003) Reflection. On a personal note, I have reflected on my own practice in dealing with cases of shoulder dystocia. As a result of researching this essay I have resolved to further explore the evidence base for dealing with the situation, because critical analysis of some of the papers read have challenged some of the ideas that I had previously believed to be true. In particular, I note papers which have analysed the behaviour of the responsible clinician in cases of shoulder dystocia and have been concerned about the frequent lack of paediatric back up. This has been identified as a failure on the part of the lead clinician, who is often so engrossed in the management of the condition that back up is simply overlooked. I have personally experienced cases where this has occurred and believe that a high degree of assertiveness is required if I see that it has been overlooked in the future. References Beall M H, Spong C Y, Ross M G (2003) A Randomized Controlled Trial of Prophylactic Maneuvers to Reduce Head-to-Body Delivery Time in Patients at Risk for Shoulder Dystocia. Obstetrics Gynecology 2003; 102: 31 35 Crofts J F, Bartlett C, Ellis D, Hunt L P, Fox R, Draycott T J (2006) Training for Shoulder Dystocia : A Trial of Simulation Using Low-Fidelity and High-Fidelity Mannequins : Obstetrics Gynecology 2006; 108 : 1477 1485 Crofts J F, Bartlett C, Ellis D, Winter C, Donald F, Hunt L P, Draycott T J (2008) Patient-actor perception of care: a comparison of obstetric emergency training using manikins and patient-actors. Qual. Saf. Health Care, February 1, 2008; 17 (1): 20 24. Deering S, Satin A J (2005) Evaluation of Residents Delivery Notes After a Simulated Shoulder Dystocia. Obstet. Gynecol., February 1, 2005; 105 (2): 448 449. Draycott T J, Crofts J F, Ash J P, Wilson L V, Yard E, Sibanda T, Whitelaw A. (2008) Improving Neonatal Outcome Through Practical Shoulder Dystocia Training. Obstet. Gynecol., July 1, 2008; 112 (1): 14 20. German R B, Goodwin T M, Souter I, Neumann K, Ouzounian J G, Paul R H. The McRoberts’ maneuver for the alleviation of shoulder dystocia: How successful is it? Am J Obstet Gynecol 1997; 176 : 656 – 61. Gonen R, Spiegel D, Abend M. Is macrosomia predictable and are shoulder dystocia and birth trauma preventable? Obstet Gynecol 1996; 88 : 526 – 9. Heath L T, Gherman R B. Symphyseal separation, sacroiliac joint dislocation and transient lateral femoral cutaneous neuropathy associated with McRoberts’ maneuver. J Reprod Med 1999; 44 : 902 – 4 Robinson H, Tkatch S, Mayes D C, Bott N, Okun N. (2003) Is Maternal Obesity a Predictor of Shoulder Dystocia? Obstetrics Gynecology 2003; 101 : 24 27 ############################################################### 12.8.08 Word count 1,060 PDG Different Medicinal Plants: Use Of Different Medicinal Plants: Use Of MEDICINAL PLANTS This section consist a list of sub-groups that gives information about Introduction, Importance, Systems of medicine, Utilization of medicinal plants. Introduction to Medicinal plants: About 250,000 higher plant species on earth, more than 80,000 species are reported to have at least some medicinal value and around 5000 species have specific therapeutic value. Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal renaissance is happening all over the globe. The herbal products today symbolize safety in compare to the synthetics that are considered as unsafe to human and environment. Even though herbs had been priced for their medicinal, flavoring and aromatic qualities for centuries, the synthetic products of the modern age surpassed their importance, for a while. However, the blind dependence on synthetics is over and people are returning to the herbals with hope of safety and security. Over three-quarters of the world population relies mainly on plants and plant extracts for health care. More than 30% of the entire plant species were used for medicinal purposes. (Joy, P.P., 2001) Herbals in world market: It is estimated that world market for plant derived drugs may account for about Rs.2, 00,000 crores. Presently, Indian contribution is less than Rs.2000 crores. The annual production of medicinal and aromatic plants raw material is worth about Rs.200 crores. This is likely to reach US $5 trillion by 2050. It has been estimated that in developed countries such as United States, plant drugs constitute as much as 25% of the total drugs, while in fast developing countries such as China and India, the contribution is as much as 80%. Thus, the economic importance of medicinal plants is much more to countries such as India than to rest of the world. (Joy, P.P., 2001) Biodiversity of herbals in India: India is one of the worlds 12 biodiversity centers with the presence of over 45000 different plant species. Indias diversity is UN compared due to the presence of 16 different agro-climatic zones, 10 vegetation zones, 25 biotic provinces and 426 biomes (habitats of specific species). Among these, about 15000-20000 plants have good medicinal value. However, only 7000-7500 species are used for their medicinal values by traditional communities. In India, drugs of plant origin have been used in traditional systems of medicines such as Unani and Ayurveda since ancient times. The Ayurveda system of medicine uses about 700 species, Unani 700, Siddha 600, Amchi 600 and modern medicine around 30 species. About 8,000 herbal remedies have been included in Ayurveda. The Rig-Veda (5000 BC) has recorded 67 medicinal plants, Yajurveda 81 species, Atharvaveda (4500-2500 BC) 290 species, Charak Samhita (700 BC) and Sushrut Samhita (200 BC) had described properties and uses of 1100 and 1270 species respectively, in compounding of drugs and these are still used in the classical formulations, in the Ayurvedic system of medicine. (Joy, P.P., 2001) Sources of medicinal drugs: The drugs are derived either from the whole plant or from different organs, like leaves, stem, bark, root, flower, seed, etc. Some drugs are prepared from excretory plant product such as gum, resins and latex. Plants, especially used in Ayurveda can provide biologically active molecules and lead structures for the development of modified derivatives with enhanced activity and /or reduced toxicity. Some important chemical intermediates needed for manufacturing the modern drugs are also obtained from plants (Eg. ÃŽÂ ²-ionone).The forest in India is the principal(diosgenin, solasodine) repository of large number of medicinal and aromatic plants, which are largely collected as raw materials for manufacture of drugs and perfumery products. The small fraction of flowering plants that have so far been investigated have yielded about 120 therapeutic agents of known structure from about 90 species of plants. Some of the useful plant drugs include vinblastine, vincristine, taxol, podophyllo toxin, camptothecin, digitoxigenin, gitoxigenin, digoxigenin, tubocurarine, morphine, codeine, aspirin, atropine, pilocarpine, capscicine, allicin, curcumin, artemisinin and ephedrine among others. (Joy, P.P., 2001) History of herbal medicine: Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Folk (tribal) medicines are the major systems of indigenous medicines. Among these systems, Ayurveda is most developed and widely practiced in India. Ayurveda dating back to 1500-800 BC has been an integral part of Indian culture. The term comes from the Sanskrit root Au (life) and Veda (knowledge). As the name implies it is not only the science of treatment of the ill but covers the whole gamut of happy human life involving the physical, metaphysical and the spiritual aspects. Ayurveda is gaining prominence as the natural system of health care all over the world. Today this system of medicine is being practiced in countries like Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Pakistan, while the traditional system of medicine in the other countries like Tibet, Mongolia and Thailand appear to be derived from Ayurveda. Phytomedicines are also being used increasingly in Western Europe. Recently the US Government has established the Office of Alternative Medicine at the National Institute of Health at Bethesda and its support to alternative medicine includes basic and applied research in traditional systems of medicines such as Chinese, Ayurvedic. (Joy, P.P., 2001) Disadvantages: A major lacuna in Ayurveda is the lack of drug standardization, information and quality control. Most of the Ayurvedic medicines are in the form of crude extracts which are a mixture of several ingredients and the active principles when isolated individually fail to give desired activity. This implies that the activity of the extract is the synergistic effect of its various components. About 121 (45 tropical and 76 subtropical) major plant drugs have been identified for which no synthetic one is currently available. The scientific study of traditional medicines, derivation of drugs through bio prospecting and systematic conservation of the concerned medicinal plants is of great importance. Unfortunately, much of the ancient knowledge and many valuable plants are being lost at an alarming rate. Red Data Book of India has 427 entries of endangered species of which 28 are considered extinct, 124 endangered, 81 vulnerable, 100 rare and 34 insufficiently known species (Thomas, 1997).There are basically two scientific techniques of conservation of genetic diversity of these plants. They are the in situ and ex situ method of conservation. (Joy, P.P., 2001) In Situ conservation of medicinal plants: It is only in nature that plant diversity at the genetic, species and eco-system level can be conserved on long-term basis. ( It is necessary to conserve in distinct, representative bio geographic zones inter and intra specific genetic variation. Ex situ conservation of medicinal plants: A. Ethno-medicinal plant gardens: Creation of a network of regional and sub-regional ethno-medicinal plant gardens which should contain accessions of all the medicinal plants known to the various ethnic communities in different regions of India. This chain of gardens will act as regional repositories of our cultural and ethno medicinal history and embody the living traditions of our societys knowledge of medicinal plants. ( Current status: There are estimated to be around 50 such gardens in the country ranging from acre to 40 acres some of them were set up by an All India Health Network (AHN). More recently a network of 15 such gardens has been set up in 3 states of South India with the initiative of FRLHT. One of the gardens is located in TBGRI, (Tropical botanical garden research institute) Palode at Thiruvananthapuram. B. Gene banks: In India there is a large number of medicinal plant species are under various degrees of threat. The precautionary principles would suggest that an immediate and country-wide exercise be taken up to deposit seeds of wild medicinal plants with a first priority to known Red listed species and endemic species. Current status: The department of bio-technology, Government of India has recently taken the initiative to establish 3 gene banks in the country. One is with ICAR at the NBPGR (National Bureau of plant genetic Resources) Campus, the second is with CIMAPs, (Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic plants) Luck now and the third with TBFRI in Thiruvananthapuram. C. Nursery network: The most urgent and primary task in order to ensure immediate availability of plants and planting materials to various user groups is to promote a nationwide network of medicinal plant nurseries, which will multiply all the regional specific plants that are used in the current practice of traditional medicine. These nurseries should become the primary sources of supply of plants and seed material that can be subsequently multiplied by the various users. Current status: Planting material for 40 odd species of medicinal and aromatic plants is reportedly available in the ICAR and CSIR (CIMAP) network. In South India FRLHT (Foundation for Rural Revitalization of Local Health Tradition) has recently set up a network of 55 supply nurseries. D. Cultivation of medicinal plants: Figures projecting demand and trade in medicinal plant species globally indicate a step upward trend in the near future. One estimate puts the figure of world trade in medicinal plants and related products at US $ 5 trillion by A.D. 2050 (world bank report , 1996).The demand so far has been met mainly from wild sources. This cant go on for much longer; policy intervention is urgently needed to encourage and facilitate investments into commercial cultivation of medicinal plants. (Joy, P.P., 2001) Cultivation of medicinal plants is inversely linked to prevalence of easy and cheap collection from the wild, lack of regulation in trade, cornering of the profits from wild collection by a vast network of traders and middlemen and absence of industrys interest in providing buy-back guarantees to growers. Current status: In the Govt. sector agro-technology of 40 odd species has been developed by ICAR Agricultural University System and CSIR (CIMAOs RRL, Jammu and Jorhat). In recent years industries like Dabur, Zandu, Indian Herbs, Arya Vaidya Shala, and Arya Vaidya Pharmacy and others have made some symbolic efforts to initiate cultivation. Since1984 NABARD (National Bank of Agricultural and Rural Development) has formulated schemes for financing cultivation and processing of medicinal plants. E. Community based enterprises: The income generated by the traditional medicine industry benefits small section of the society. A strong case exists for promotion of community level enterprises for value addition to medicinal plants through simple, on site techniques like drying, cleaning, crushing, powdering, grading, packaging etc. This will also increase the stake of rural communities in conservation and change the skewed nature of income distribution of the industry. Current status: Three community based enterprises are known in south India, one in Gandhi gram Trust, (Dindigul), Premade development Society (Peer made) Kerala and the third by VGKK in B.R.Hills, Mysore. Importance of Herbal Medicines: Herbal medicines are prepared from a variety of plant material such as leaves, stems, roots, bark, etc. They usually contain many biologically active ingredients and are used primarily for treating mild or chronic ailments. ( Herbal remedies can also be purchased in the form of pills, capsules or powders, or in more concentrated liquid forms called extracts and tinctures. They can apply topically in creams or ointments, soaked into cloths and used as compresses, or applied directly to the skin as poultices. A combination therapy integrating ayurveda and allopathy whereby the side effects and undesirable reactions could be controlled can be thought of. Studies can show that the toxic effects of radiations and chemotherapy in cancer treatment could be reduced by Ayurvedic medications and similarly surgical wound healing could be accelerated by Ayurvedic medicines. Modern science and technology have an essential role to play in the process. Systems of Medicine: There are mainly 3 systems of medicine practiced in the world today. They are, Modern System of medicine or Allopathy: This system was developed in the Western countries. In this system drugs (tablets, capsules, injections, tonics etc.) are manufactured using synthetic chemicals and / or chemicals derived from natural products like plants, animals, minerals etc. This system also uses modern equipment for diagnosis, analysis, surgery etc. Medicines or drugs of this system is often criticized for its treatment of the symptoms rather than the cause of the disease, harmful side effects of certain drugs and for being out of reach of common / poor people due to the high cost of drugs and treatment. This system is used in all the countries of the world today. ( Alternative Medicine or Traditional System: Different countries of the world developed independently their own traditional systems of medicine using locally available materials like minerals and products of plants and animals. ( The World Health Organization (WHO) is giving importance to these alternate medicine systems to provide Primary Health Care to millions of people in the developing countries. Development of herbal medicine: China developed the Chinese system of medicine, which is practiced in China, Singapore, Taiwan, Japan and other countries. In India, Ayurveda (developed in North India), Siddha (developed in Tamil Nadu) and Nagarjuna (developed in Andhra Pradesh) systems of medicine were developed. Ayurveda is practiced in Sri Lanka, Pakistan and Bangladesh also. Herbo-mineral is another traditional system used in India and other neighbouring countries. Drugs (balms, oils, pills, tonics, paste etc) are manufactured and marketed in these systems. (Joy, P.P., 2001) Advantages of traditional medicine: Traditional systems of medicine continue to be widely practiced on many accounts. Population rise, inadequate supply of drugs, prohibitive cost of treatments, side effects of several allopathic drugs and development of resistance to currently used drugs for infectious diseases have led to increased emphasis on the use of plant materials as a source of medicines for a wide variety of human ailments. Folk Medicine or tribal medicine: The medicinal systems followed by various tribals of different countries are popularly known as folk or tribal medicine. In the system, the medicine man or the doctor of the tribe who has the knowledge of treating diseases, keeps this knowledge as a closely guarded secret and passes it to the next generation by word of mouth. No written texts on these systems are available and different tribes follow different time tested methods. The treatment is often associated with lengthy and mystic rituals, in addition to prescription of drugs (decoctions, pastes, powders, oils, ashed materials etc.). Generally speaking, folk medicine can also be regarded as a traditional system of medicine. The basic aim of all the above systems of medicine is to alleviate the sufferings of human beings and their domesticated animals. ( Other Systems of medicine: Yoga, Acupressure, Acupuncture, Reiki, Magneto therapy, Pyramid therapy, Flower therapy, Homeopathy, Nature Cure or Naturopathy etc. are some of the other systems of medicine practiced in different parts of the world today. Utilization of Herbal Plants: The utility of medicinal plants has four major segments they are, Medicinal plants utilized in indigenous or traditional systems of medicines (ISM) Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Homeopathy systems of medicines , OTC (over the country, non-prescription) items / products involving plant parts, extracts galenicals etc. , Essential oils , Phyto pharmaceuticals or plants used in modern systems of medicine. ( Medicinal plants used in Traditional Systems of Medicine: As its name implies, it is the part of tradition of each country which employs practices that have been handed down from generation to generation. An important feature of traditional therapy is the preference of practitioner for compound prescriptions over single substance/drug as it is being held that some constituents are effective only in the presence of others. This renders assessment of efficacy and eventually identification of active principles as required in international standards much difficult than for simple preparation. In India, earlier the medicines used in indigenous systems of medicines were generally prepared by the practicing physicians by themselves, but now this practice has been largely replaced by the establishment of organized indigenous drug industries. It is estimated that at present there are more than 1, 00,000 licensed registered practitioners of Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani medicine or Homeopathy. In fact reliable data on availability in different regions of country as well as supply and demand of medicinal plants used in production of indigenous medicines are not available. ( Plants-parts, extracts and galenicals of medicinal herbs: The direct utilization of plant material is not only a feature of ISM in the developing world but also in developed countries like USA, UK, Germany etc., the various herbal formulations are sold on health food shops. Preparation of decoctions, tinctures, galenicals and total extracts of plants also form a part of many pharmacopoeias of the world. The current trend of medicinal plants based drug industry is to procedure standard extracts of plants as raw material. ( Essential Oils from herbal plants: The essential oil industry was traditionally a cottage industry in India. Since 1947, a number of industrial companies have been established for large scale production of essential oils, oleoresins and perfumes. The essential oil from plants includes Ajowan oil, Eucalyptus oil, Geranium oil, Lavender oil, Palmarosa oil, Patchouli oil, Rose oil, Sandalwood oil, Turpentine oil and Vetiver oil. Phyto-pharmaceuticals of medicinal plants: During the past decades, bulk production of plant based drugs has become an important segment of Indian pharmaceutical industry. Some of the Phyto-pharmaceuticals which are produced in India at present include Morphine, codeine, papaverine (Papaver somniferum), quinine, quinidine, cinchonine and cinchonidine (Cinchona sp., C.calisaya, C. Hyoscine, hyoscyamine (Hyocyamus Niger and H. muticus), colchicine (Gloriosa superbad, Colchicum luteum and Iphigenia stellata), cephaeline and emetin (Cephalis ipacacuanha), sennosides A B (Cassia angustifolia and C. acutifolia), reserpine, rescinnamine, ajmalicine and ajmaline (Rauvolfia serpentina); vinblastine and vincristine, ajmalicine (raubacine) (Catharanthus roseus); guggul lipid (Commiphora wightii); taxol (Taxus baccata); artemisinin (Artemisai annua) etc. ( CLASSIFICATION OF HERBAL PLANTS: They are classified according to the part used, habit, habitat, therapeutic value etc, besides the usual botanical classification.Based on Therapeutic value they are classified as follows. Anti malarial : Cinchona officinalis, Artemisia annua ,Anticancer : Catharanthus roseus, Taxus baccata ,Antiulcer : Azadirachta indica, Glycyrrhiza glabra , Antidiabetic : Catharanthus roseus, Momordica charantia , Anticholesterol : Allium sativum Anti inflammatory : Curcuma domestica, Desmodium gangeticum , Antiviral : Acacia catechu Antibacterial : Plumbago indica , Antifungal : Allium sativum , Antiprotozoal : Ailanthus sp., Cephaelis ipacacuanha , Antidiarrhoeal : Psidium guava, Curcuma domestica , Hypotensive : Coleus forskohlii, Alium sativum , Tranquilizing : Rauvolfia serpentina , Anaesthetic : Erythroxylum coca , Spasmolytic : Atropa belladona, Hyoscyamus niger , Diuretic : Phyllanthus niruri, Centella asiatica , Astringent : Piper betel, Abrus precatorius Anthelmentic : Quisqualis indica, Punica granatum , Cardio tonic : Digitalis sp., Thevetia sp. Antiallergic : Nandina domestica, Scutellaria baicalensis ,Hepatoprotective : Silybum marianum, Andrographis paniculata. (Joy, P.P., 2001) Safety of medicinal plants: The safety and effectiveness of alternative medicines have not be been scientifically proven and remains largely unknown. A number of herbs are thought to be likely to cause adverse effects. Furthermore, adulteration, inappropriate formulation, or lack of understanding of plant and drug interactions have led to adverse reactions that are sometimes life threatening or lethal. Proper double-blind clinical trials are needed to determine the safety and efficacy of each plant before they can be recommended for medical use. Although many consumers believe that herbal medicines are safe because they are natural, herbal medicines may interact with synthetic drugs causing toxicity to the patient, may have contamination that is a safety consideration, and herbal medicines, without proven efficacy, may be used to replace medicines that have a proven efficacy. (Joy, P.P., 2001) Eg: Ephedra has been known to have numerous side effects, including severe skin reactions, irritability, nervousness, dizziness, trembling, headache, insomnia, profuse perspiration, dehydration, itchy scalp and skin, vomiting, hyperthermia, irregular heartbeat, seizures, heart attack, stroke, or death. Poisonous plants which have limited medicinal effects are often not sold in material doses in the United States or are available only to trained practitioners, these include: Aconite, Arnica, Belladonna, Bryonia, Datura, Gelsemium, Henbane, Male Fern Phytolacca, Podophyllum andVeratrum. Furthermore, herbs such as Lobelia, Ephedra and Eonymus that cause nausea, sweating, and vomiting, have been traditionally prized for this action. Plants such as Comfrey and Petasites have specific toxicity due to hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid content. There are other plant medicines which require caution or can interact with other medications, including St. Johns wort and grapefruit. (Phytotherapy , INTRODUCTION TO DIABETES MELLITUS In recent years, developed nations have witnessed an explosive increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) predominantly related to lifestyle changes and the resulting surge in obesity. The metabolic consequences of prolonged hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia, including accelerated atherosclerosis, chronic kidney disease, and blindness, pose an enormous burden on patients with diabetes mellitus and on the public health system. (Goodman Gilmans, 2006) In 1869, a German medical student, Paul Langerhans, noted that the pancreas contains two distinct groups of cells the acinar cells, which secrete digestive enzymes, and cells that are clustered in islands, or islets, which he suggested, served a second function. Direct evidence for this function came in 1889, when Minkowski and von Mering showed that pancreatectomized dogs exhibit a syndrome similar to diabetes mellitus in humans (Goodman Gilmans,2006) In the early 1900s, Gurg Zuelzer, an internist in Berlin, attempted to treat a dying diabetic patient with extracts of pancreas. Although the patient improved temporarily, he sank back into a coma and died when the supply of extract was exhausted. E.L. Scott, a student at the University of Chicago, made another early attempt to isolate an active principle in 1911. Using alcoholic extracts of the pancreas Scott treated several diabetic dogs with encouraging results; however, he lacked clear measures of control of blood glucose concentrations, Between 1916 and 1920, the Romanian physiologist Nicolas Paulesco found that injections of pancreatic extracts reduced urinary sugar and ketones in diabetic dogs. Although he published the results of his experiments, their significance was fully appreciated only years later. (Goodman Gilmans, 2006) Banting assumed that the islets secreted insulin but that the hormone was destroyed by proteolytic digestion prior to or during extraction. Together with Charles Best, he attempted to overcome the problem by ligating the pancreatic ducts. The acinar tissue degenerated, leaving the islets undisturbed; the remaining tissue then was extracted with ethanol and acid. Banting and Best thus obtained a pancreatic extract that decreased the concentration of blood glucose in diabetic dogs. (Goodman Gilmans, 2006) Insulin was purified and crystallized by Abel within a few years of its discovery. Sanger established the amino acid sequence of insulin in 1960, the protein was synthesized in 1963, and Hodgkin and coworkers elucidated insulins three-dimensional structure in 1972. Insulin was the hormone for which Yalow and Berson first developed the radioimmunoassay (Goodman Gilmans, 2006) Insulin regulation is achieved by the coordinated interplay of various nutrients, gastrointestinal hormones, pancreatic hormones, and autonomic neurotransmitters. Glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, and ketone bodies promote the secretion of insulin. The islets of Langerhans are richly innervated by both adrenergic and cholinergic nerves. Stimulation of a2 adrenergic receptors inhibits insulin secretion, whereas b2 adrenergic receptor agonists and vagal nerve stimulation enhance release. In general, any condition that activates the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system (such as hypoxia, hypoglycemia, exercise, hypothermia, surgery, or severe burns) suppresses the secretion of insulin by stimulation of ÃŽÂ ±2-adrenergic receptors. Predictably, ÃŽÂ ±2 adrenergic receptor antagonists increase basal concentrations of insulin in plasma, and ÃŽÂ ²2 adrenergic receptor antagonists decrease them. The sugar is more effective in provoking insulin secretion when taken orall y than when administered intravenously because the ingestion of glucose (or food) induces the release of gastrointestinal hormones and stimulates vagal activity. Several gastrointestinal hormones promote the secretion of insulin. The most potent of these are gastrointestinal inhibitory peptide (GIP) and glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP-1). Insulin release also is stimulated by gastrin, secretin, Cholecystokinin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, gastrin-releasing peptide, and Enteroglucagon. (Goodman Gilmans, 2006) Distribution: Insulin circulates in blood as the free monomer, and its volume of distribution approximates the volume of extracellular fluid. Under fasting conditions, the pancreas secretes about 40 mg (1 unit) of insulin per hour into the portal vein to achieve a concentration of insulin in portal blood of 2 to 4 ng/ml (50 to 100 minutes/ml) and in the peripheral circulation of 0.5 ng/ml (12 minutes/ml) or about 0.1 nM. After ingestion of a meal, there is a rapid rise in the concentration of insulin in portal blood, followed by a parallel but smaller rise in the peripheral circulation. (Goodman Gilmans, 2006) Half Life: The half-life of insulin in plasma is about 5 to 6 minutes in normal subjects and patients with uncomplicated diabetes. This value may be increased in diabetics who develop anti-insulin antibodies. (Goodman Gilmans, 2006) Metabolism: Degradation of insulin occurs primarily in liver, kidney, and muscle. About 50% of the insulin that reaches the liver via the portal vein is destroyed and never reaches the general circulation. Insulin is filtered by the renal glomeruli and is reabsorbed by the tubules, which also degrade it. Severe impairment of renal function appears to affect the rate of disappearance of circulating insulin to a greater extent than does hepatic disease. Peripheral tissues such as fat also inactivate insulin, but this is of less significance quantitatively. The important target tissues for regulation of glucose homeostasis by insulin are liver, muscle, and fat, but insulin exerts potent regulatory effects on other cell types as well. Insulin is the primary hormone responsible for controlling the uptake, use, and storage of cellular nutrients. (Goodman Gilmans, 2006) DIABETES MELLITUS: Diabetes mellitus (DM) consists of a group of syndromes characterized by hyperglycemia; altered metabolism of lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins; and an increased risk of complications from vascular disease. Most patients can be classified clinically as having either type 1 or type 2 DM. Criteria for the diagnosis of DM have been proposed by several medical organizations. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria include symptoms of DM (e.g., polyuria, polydipsia, and unexplained weight loss) and a random plasma glucose concentration of greater than 200 mg/dl (11.1 mM), a fasting plasma glucose concentration of greater than 126 ml/dl (7 mM), or a plasma glucose concentration of greater than 200 mg/dl (11 mM) 2 hours after the ingestion of an oral glucose load In the United States, about 5% to 10% of all diabetic patients have type 1 DM, with an incidence of 18 per 100,000 inhabitants per year. A similar incidence is found in the United Kingdom. The incidence of type 1 DM in Europe varies with latitude. The highest rates occur in northern Europe (Finland, 43 per 100,000) and the lowest in the south (France and Italy, 8 per 100,000). The one exception to this rule is the small island of Sardinia, close to Italy, which has an incidence of 30 per 100,000. However, even the relatively low incidence rates of type 1 DM in southern Europe are far higher than the rates in Japan (1 per 100,000 inhabitants). There are more than 125 million persons with diabetes in the world today, and by 2010, this number is expected to approach 220 million. (Goodman Gilmans, 2006) Both type 1 and type 2 DM are increasing in frequency. The reason for the increase of type 1 DM is not known. The genetic basis for type 2 DM cannot change in such a short time; thus other contributing factors, including increasing age, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and low birth weight, must account for this dramatic increase. In addition, type 2 DM is being diagnosed with remarkable frequency in preadolescents and adolescents. Up to 45% of newly diagnosed children and adolescents have type 2 DM. There are genetic and environmental components that affect the risk of developing either type 1 or type 2 DM Types: Diabetes can be divided into two groups based on their requirements for insulin includes, ( Type I: Insulin- dependent diabetes mellitus [IDDM] Type II: Non- insulin dependent diabetes [NIDDM] Type I: Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: A burst of insulin secretion normally occurs after ingestion of a meal in response to transient increase in the levels of circulating glucose and amino acids. In the post operative period, low, basal levels of circulating insulin are maintained through beta cell secretion. However type one diabetic has virtually no functional beta cells. Treatment: Type I diabetic must rely on exogenous (injected) insulin in order to control hyperglycemia, maintain acceptable levels of Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) and avoid ketoacidosis. The goal in administering insulin to type I diabetic is to maintain blood glucose concentrations as close to normal as possible and

Saturday, January 18, 2020

An Analysis of the Kenyan Mobile Phone Market Essay

The stage is thus set for fierce competition among Mobile service providers in Kenya with possible positive benefits for the millions of mobile subscribers in the country. . 2 Technology According to Laudon(2006:292), â€Å"mobile phones enable millions of people to communicate and access the internet †¦. where conventional telephone and internet services are expensive or unavailable†. It is not surprising then that in a country such as Kenya with poor or little infrastructure in the form of fixed telephone lines, developed transport systems and computer facilities that a large percentage of the population has resorted to using mobile phones to communicate , do business and enhance their lives. According to Menguy, T (2007), in 1990, only 48. % of long distance calls and 53. 7% of domestic calls were being completed successfully using a fixed line. State owned fixed line operator Telkom Kenya has been regarded as a â€Å"low performer with no competition†. Laudon ( 2006:292) highlights that the global standard for cellular service is GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) which is also currently being used by the Safaricom and Celtel networks. Using the GSM band users are able to retain the same number while being able to roam across national borders to nearby countries such as Uganda and Tanzania (BBC News as reported by Karobia, C,). Although the benefits and features of smart phones are widely known and used by the western world developing companies such as Kenya as still getting used to the idea of having a phone that does nearly everything for them. Safaricom is only introducing 3G and video calling including other value adding services to Kenyans next year (Arunga, J and Kahora, B (2007:12)) which undoubtedly will only enhance the lives of Kenyans. 1. 3 Foreign Trade Policy During the 1980’s until 1990’s, Kenya’s poor relations with donors resulted in heavy domestic borrowing and higher interest rates which resulted in poor economic growth. According to Wagacha, M, (2008:12) trade policies in Kenya underwent reformation in 1990 which resulted in greater trade openness (such as the CCK’s decision to issue more mobile phone licences to companies). The Trade Openness Index is an indication of the ability of country to trade and is calculated by adding imports and exports of company and representing it as a fraction of GDP. Wagacha, M (2008:12) highlights that the trade openness index for Kenya was an average of 46. 4% during 1997 to 2003 . The higher the trade openness the more open the country is to trade and the higher the growth. A country such as Uganda had an openness index of 26. 7 which indicates that Kenya has better trade policies and a better chance of growth as compared to Uganda. In addition to this Apoteker, T and Crozet, E (2003:7) argue that better trade openness results in †¢Ã¢â‚¬Å"Innovation and efficient production in a smaller number of goods [and allows Kenya]†¦. to compete internationally. Greater variety of goods available to consumers thus increasing the consumer Surplus and satisfying the consumers’ â€Å"demand of difference†. †¢[The] Adoption of sound policies to make sure the country is attractive to investors. †¢Capital flows can enhance domestic investment rates. From capital-rich to capital-poor countries, they can improve the rate of capi tal accumulation in the latter†. According to Arunga, J and Kahora, B (2007:7) prior to 1998 all telecommunications in Kenya was owned and controlled by the state owned company Kenya Posts and Telecommunications (KP&C). Wagacha, M (2008:16) highlights that more than 200 transnational corporations are operating in Kenya successfully, in many industries not limited just to the mobile phone sector. However trade reforms and governmental corruption have always influenced investment from foreign companies. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) may be regarded as the commitment by developed countries to facilitate the access of new technologies, markets, products, process and skills and most importantly funds to the developing or emerging country to improve and strengthen the economic development of the developing country such as Kenya. In1999 the Kenyan government approved the new act proposed by the Communication Commission of Kenya(CCK) which made KP&C redundant with the intention of opening up the industry to invite competition from foreign and local service providers. The New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) as cited by Van Vuuren, H (2002:1) also describes â€Å"private capital flows to Africa, as an essential component of a sustainable long-term approach to filling the resource gap†. However bribery and corruption in the Kenyan government and the government’s interference in the mobile phone industry is well known. In 2005 Econet Wireless paid US$ 15 m for phone network licence which according to Arunga, J and Kahora, B (2007:7) was illegally cancelled by the Kenyan Minister of Information and Communications. The same minister was also accused of illegally cancelling a tendering process for a second fixed line operator and is alleged to have a vested interest in monopolised Telkom Kenya. The Competition Commission of Kenya (CCk) which was formed in the first place to invite foreign and local investment in the mobile industry has since been dissolved due to governmental interference in a highly political industry. Today nearly 100’s of companies are still waiting for their licences to be issued which now rests with government which is trying to regulate the industry with a political agenda which is counter productive to stimulating sustainable long term growth to reduce poverty (Wagacha, 2008). 1. 4 Economy Table 1 below shows some key statistics on Kenya. According to the information presented in the table it can be seen that Kenya has an average population of 34. 7million people and 52% of the Kenyan population is below the poverty line. Table 1: Key Statistics for Kenya

Friday, January 10, 2020

How Important Is It to Maintain Confidentiality in a Childcare Setting? Essay

How important is it to maintain confidentiality in a childcare setting? When in a childcare setting it is vital to maintain confidentiality in different areas not just for the Child’s welfare but the families as well! Confidential information must not be shared outside of the setting E.G family or friends. The following examples are to be kept confidential; enrolment forms, family’s health insurance information, health screenings and records, including immunization records, emergency contact information, contact information for those authorized to pick up child, emergency care consent forms , consent forms (permission slips) for outings or special activities, names of regular medical or dental providers who know the child, nutritional restrictions, progress reports, child observation logs, parent conference logs, medication logs, documentation of medical, behavioural or developmental evaluations, referrals or follow-ups, addressing issues relevant to the child’s participation in the program, documentation of any injury occurring at the program site and the steps taken to address the situation. While the rights and desires of families to keep their personal details private are important, there are also some circumstances under which identifying information should be shared for example; Program staff and the â€Å"need to know (might have a dietary or medical requirements so the cook or nurse will need to know) Outbreaks of reportable illness or Outbreaks of reportable illness as the information might be vital and used to saved the children’s life or keep them healthy. One way to differentiate whether the information is confidential or not would be to think â€Å"Is this common knowledge or do I know it because my position in the setting† as all children, families and young people have a right to confidentiality. So always ask your supervisor if you aren’t sure about what information is appropriate to disclose to different people. In addition all information needs to be store properly- in a secure place. If this isn’t possible make sure you donâ €™t discuss the information apart from those directly responsible for the care of the child. Technology is advancing but this still doesn’t escape the laws. Read more:  Maintaining an Individual’s Confidentiality and Disclosing Concerns There is legislation that defines in what ways personal information can be used; The Data Protection Act 1998 (was created to protect individual’s rights and to prevent breaches or information.) It applies whether or not they are kept on the computer Maintaining confidentiality protects children and their families from gossip but also prevents situations of an abuser mounts a legal defence based on tampering of evidence so it is essential that you don’t talk to anyone other than those directly involved about your concerns or about what a child has told you. As anything you learn about children or their families or other during the course of your practice is likely to be very confidential. When working with other professional it is most likely you will hear comments and remarks that aren’t anticipated to be repeated outside of the meeting/ conversation. You may be given documents that cover sensitive areas- this means that you need to keep the information confiden tial but also in a safe and secure lock up. Photography is an ever increasing technology and can be a brilliant way to have evidence for observations or practical’s but there are some basic rules that you have to follow to maintain confidentially when taking photographs; ALWAYS Have permission from the parents of the child that you a photographing, Only use a school camera as this ensures that the photographs don’t make it out of the school, although the parent says it okay the child might not when you are taking the photo always keep this in mind, If the parent(s) don’t want their child to be in the picture then make sure that they STAY OUT of it or you can cut/ bur them out of the photo. When doing observations you need to maintain confidentiality in the following ways; only using the Childs first names, change the children’s names if they are unusual or could lead to the child be identified in any way, give the type of setting rather than the name of the settings EG â€Å"a primary school† rather than â€Å"The John Warner primary school†. Write the children’s age as years and months rather than the date of birth as they can be easily identified, photographic records should not be used unless permission is gained from the child’s parents and the setting lastly make sure the files have a contacting telephone number so they can be returned safely if lost. Lastly it is vital that as a practitioner that we maintain confidentiality as our main priority is the welfare of child and their development. If you breach confidentiality then you are putting the child at a very high risk, whether this is of kidnapping, sexual, emotional or physical abuse, there are laws and moral rules for a reason as it should be the child’s interest at heart at all times. Secondly you should always maintain confidentiality to keep a good relationship with the parents. You are in charge of the apple of their eye and they are trusting you with the Childs life thus it is vital to maintain a good and healthy relationship with the c hild’s parents. If you don’t this might result with them taking them out of the current school and you losing your job. Overall you should always make sure that the person who is picking the child up has the right of access as this could lead into very bad situations of the child being abducted. It is vital that you don’t break the trust with the family. The child might suffer abuse so you should take the right steps (Talking to your child protection officer) and no one else unless directly involved with the child’s welfare. When passing on information make it is to the correct people as the child might not be telling the truth and putting the child and family in danger for no reason. Don’t repeat anything your team says that you think is confidential. If you hear something that is being talked about them distract them- if it is a parent just talk to them about how well their child is doing but if it is a member of staff take them to one side and talk to them. With any serious or sensitive issues with children ( break ups, deaths etc†¦) then you need to tell your supervisor immediately and instead of asking the child to tell you a good way to get their emotions out is to write it down ( if old enough). Always ensure that children’s names are remained confidential e.g.; in observations etc†¦ If you are going arrange to talk to anyone about a confident matter then always arrange a confidential area so no one will come in and hear/ see what you are discussing. Always obtain permission for photographs/ videos of a child. Make sure there is no mistrial as to many questions could lead a child on and not tell the truth, get a professional in to deal with the matter. Lastly the data protection acts has 8 principles that state all about maintain confidentially with any documentation in any situation, this is the law. Overall it is vital that you as a professional practitioner you always maintain confidentiality of the setting/ children/ families as it can put many people at risk or a endless list of dangers.